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Contemporary approaches in the development of humanoid robots continually neglect holistic nuances, particularly in ocular prosthetic design. The standard solid glass and acrylic eye construction techniques implemented in humanoid robot design present the observer with an inaccurate representation of the natural human eye by utilising hardened synthetic materials which prohibit pupillary dynamics. Precise eye emulation is an essential factor in the development of a greater realistic humanoid robot as misrepresentation in ocular form and function will appear distinctly prevalent during proximity face to face communication as eye contact is the primary form of interpersonal communicative processing. This paper explores a new material approach in the development of a more accurate humanoid robotic eye construction by employing natural compounds similar in structure to that found in the organic human eye to replace the traditional glass and acrylic modelling techniques. Furthermore, this paper identifies a gap in current ocular system design as no robotic eye model can accurately replicate all the natural operations of the human iris simultaneously in reaction to light and emotive responsivity. This paper offers a new system design approach to augment future humanoid robot eye construction towards achieving a greater accurate and naturalistic eye emulation.

Original publication




Journal article


Artificial Life and Robotics

Publication Date





540 - 546