Genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder: new results, meta-analysis, and lessons learned.
Wray NR., Pergadia ML., Blackwood DHR., Penninx BWJH., Gordon SD., Nyholt DR., Ripke S., MacIntyre DJ., McGhee KA., Maclean AW., Smit JH., Hottenga JJ., Willemsen G., Middeldorp CM., de Geus EJC., Lewis CM., McGuffin P., Hickie IB., van den Oord EJCG., Liu JZ., Macgregor S., McEvoy BP., Byrne EM., Medland SE., Statham DJ., Henders AK., Heath AC., Montgomery GW., Martin NG., Boomsma DI., Madden PAF., Sullivan PF.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complex disorder with a partly genetic etiology. We conducted a genome-wide association study of the MDD2000+ sample (2431 cases, 3673 screened controls and >1 M imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)). No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance either in the MDD2000+ study, or in meta-analysis with two other studies totaling 5763 cases and 6901 controls. These results imply that common variants of intermediate or large effect do not have main effects in the genetic architecture of MDD. Suggestive but notable results were (a) gene-based tests suggesting roles for adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3, 2p23.3) and galanin (GAL, 11q13.3); published functional evidence relates both of these to MDD and serotonergic signaling; (b) support for the bipolar disorder risk variant SNP rs1006737 in CACNA1C (P=0.020, odds ratio=1.10); and (c) lack of support for rs2251219, a SNP identified in a meta-analysis of affective disorder studies (P=0.51). We estimate that sample sizes 1.8- to 2.4-fold greater are needed for association studies of MDD compared with those for schizophrenia to detect variants that explain the same proportion of total variance in liability. Larger study cohorts characterized for genetic and environmental risk factors accumulated prospectively are likely to be needed to dissect more fully the etiology of MDD.