Rates and risk factors of hypertension in adolescents and adults with sickle cell anaemia in Tanzania: 10 years' experience.
Makubi A., Mmbando BP., Novelli EM., Lwakatare J., Soka D., Marik H., Tibarazwa K., Ngaeje M., Newton CR., Gladwin MT., Makani J.
Data on the magnitude and risk factors for hypertension in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) are limited. A retrospective analysis of individuals with SCA aged ≥15 years enrolled from 2004-2014 at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania was conducted to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for hypertension. A total of 1013 individuals with SCA were analysed, of whom 571(56%) were females. The median age [interquartile range] was 17 [15-22] years. Four hundred and forty-one (44%) of the patients had relative hypertension [systolic blood pressure (SBP) 120-139 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 70-89 mmHg], and 79 (8%) had hypertension (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg). The incidence of hypertension was 64/1000 person years of observation and the 5-year survival rate was 0·71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0·67-0·75]. In multivariate analysis, age>18 years, Hazard ratio (HR) 1·50 (95% CI: 1·03-2·18); pulse pressure, HR 0·64 (95% CI: 0·42 to 0·98); pulse rate, 1·02 (95% CI: 1·01-1·03); body mass index (BMI), HR 1·08 (95% CI: 1·03-1·13); blood transfusion, HR 2·50 (95% CI: 1·01-6·21) and haemoglobin, HR 1·12 (95% CI: 1·05-1·33) were independently associated with hypertension. In conclusion, despite the younger age, hypertension in this population was higher than that reported in others studies. Age, BMI, pulse pressure and haemoglobin were independently associated with hypertension in SCA.