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Mapping the structural and functional connectivity of the central nervous system has become a key area within neuroimaging research. While detailed network structures across the entire brain have been probed using animal models, non-invasive neuroimaging in humans has thus far been dominated by cortical investigations. Beyond the cortex, subcortical nuclei have traditionally been less accessible due to their smaller size and greater distance from radio frequency coils. However, major neuroimaging developments now provide improved signal and the resolution required to study these structures. Here, we present an overview of the connectivity between the amygdala, brainstem, cerebellum, spinal cord and the rest of the brain. While limitations to their imaging and analyses remain, we also provide some recommendations and considerations for mapping brain connectivity beyond the cortex.

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