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Tuberous sclerosis is one of the few established medical causes of autism spectrum disorder and is a unique neurogenetic model for testing theories about the brain basis of the syndrome. We conducted a retrospective case study of the neuro-epileptic risk factors predisposing to autism spectrum disorder in individuals with tuberous sclerosis to test current neurobiological theories of autism spectrum disorder. We found that an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis was associated with the presence of cortical tubers in the temporal but not other lobes of the brain. Indeed, the presence of tubers in the temporal lobes appeared to be a necessary but not sufficient risk factor for the development of an autism spectrum disorder. However, contrary to the predictions of some theories, the location of tubers in specific regions of the temporal lobe, such as the superior temporal gyrus or the right temporal lobe, did not determine which individuals with temporal lobe tubers developed an autism spectrum disorder. Instead, outcome was associated with various indices of epileptic activity including evidence of temporal lobe epilepti-form discharges on EEG, the age to onset of seizures in the first 3 years of life and a history of infantile spasms. The results indicated that individuals with tuberous sclerosis are at very high risk of developing an autism spectrum disorder when temporal lobe tubers are present and associated with temporal lobe epileptiform discharges and early-onset, persistent spasm-like seizures. These risk markers constitute useful clinical indicators of prognosis, but further research is required to identify the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for their association with outcome. Most especially, it will be important to test whether, as the findings suggest, there is a critical early stage of brain maturation during which temporal lobe epilepsy perturbs the development of brain systems that underpin 'social intelligence' and possibly other cognitive skills, thereby inducing an autism spectrum disorder.

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Journal article



Publication Date





1247 - 1255