Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: The quality of subjective experience of dysphoria may predict persistence of depression, independently of severity. This is tested in a clinic sample of adolescents with first episode of major depression using the Depressed States Checklist adapted for adolescents. METHOD: Ninety-four adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) were followed up at 12 months. Self-devaluative components of dysphoric experience, ruminative style, over-general autobiographical memory, and self-reported and observer-rated measures of depression severity were assessed at presentation and evaluated as predictors of persistent MDD. RESULTS: Persistent MDD was predicted by the independent additive effects of the higher self-devaluative component of dysphoria, lower general intelligence and greater observer-rated severity of depression at presentation. Neither self-reported depression score, overgeneral memory retrieval nor ruminative style contributed. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of self-devaluative dysphoric experience increase the liability for persistence of first-episode MDD. Other affective-cognitive components also contribute. The adolescent version of the Depressed States Checklist is a useful brief measure of cognitive vulnerability for persistence in currently depressed young people.


Journal article


Psychol Med

Publication Date





539 - 548


Adolescent, Chronic Disease, Depression, Depressive Disorder, Major, England, Female, Humans, Life Change Events, Male, Mental Recall, Personality Assessment, Personality Inventory, Predictive Value of Tests, Probability, Psychometrics, Risk Factors, Self Concept, Statistics as Topic