Use of hormonal contraceptives and antidepressants and risks of suicidal behavior and accidents among women with premenstrual disorders: a nationwide cohort study.
Yang Q., Lagerberg T., Sjölander A., Bertone-Johnson ER., Fang F., Ye W., Chang Z., Valdimarsdóttir UA., Lu D.
BACKGROUND: Women with premenstrual disorders (PMDs) are at increased risks of suicidal behavior and accidents. However, the effect of PMD first-line treatment on such risks have not been assessed. METHODS: To study the association between use of hormonal contraceptives or antidepressants and subsequent risks of suicidal behavior and accidents among women with PMDs. We conducted a nationwide register-based cohort study with between- and within-individual analyses in Sweden. All women with a clinical diagnosis/indication of PMDs recorded in the Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register during 1987-2011 were included (n = 23 029, age 15-52 years). Information on hormonal contraceptives and antidepressants prescribed for these women was obtained from the Prescribed Drug Register. Events of suicidal behavior (complete suicide and suicide attempt) and accidents were separately identified through the Patient and the Causes of Death Registers. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of suicidal behavior and accidents after use of hormonal contraceptives or antidepressants were estimated in between-individual and within-individual analyses (i.e., comparing the risk between use and no use in the same individual) using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Women with PMDs were followed for a median of 6.2 years. Compared to no use of hormonal contraceptives, use of hormonal contraceptives was associated with a lower risk of suicidal behavior in both between-individual (IRR 0.76, 0.43-1.34) and within-individual analyses (IRR 0.65, 0.51-0.83). These risk reductions were primarily restricted to combined products (IRR 0.18, 0.07-0.47 and 0.19, 0.08-0.42 in between- and within-individual analyses) and observed among women with/without psychiatric comorbidities (p for interaction 0.830 and 0.043 in between- and within-individual analyses). Yet, the use of hormonal contraceptives was not consistently associated with risk of accidents between between-individual (IRR 1.13, 1.01-1.27) and within-individual analyses (IRR 1.01, 0.92-1.11). Use of antidepressants was associated with a higher risk of suicidal behavior and accidents in both between- and within-individual analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that use of hormonal contraceptives, particularly combined products, is associated with reduced rates of suicidal behaviors, but not accidents, among women with PMDs. The estimates for antidepressants may be biased by indication.