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This study examined whether personality disorder status and beliefs that characterize personality disorders affect response to cognitive therapy. In a naturalistic study, 162 depressed outpatients with and without a personality disorder were followed over the course of cognitive therapy. As would be hypothesized by cognitive theory (A. T. Beck & A. Freeman, 1990), it was not personality disorder status but rather maladaptive avoidant and paranoid beliefs that predicted variance in outcome. However, pre- to posttherapy comparisons suggested that although patients with or without comorbidity respond comparably to "real-world" cognitive therapy, they report more severe depressive symptomatology at intake and more residual symptoms at termination.


Journal article


J Consult Clin Psychol

Publication Date





560 - 566


Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Chronic Disease, Cognitive Therapy, Comorbidity, Depressive Disorder, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Infant, Internal-External Control, Male, Middle Aged, Personality Disorders, Social Perception