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OBJECTIVES: Eighty-five percent of the 33 million children with epilepsy (CWE) worldwide live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is limited research into epilepsy-related comorbidities in LMICs, and there are no studies of the long-term progression of behavioral and intellectual difficulties in childhood epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to assess behavior and cognition at three-year follow-up in CWE in rural Tanzania. METHODS: In 2010, a cross-sectional study identified 112 CWE 6 to 14years of age and 113 age- and sex-matched controls in the Hai district of northern Tanzania. From March to June 2013, cases and controls (now 10 to 18years of age) were followed up. At baseline, behavior was assessed using the Rutter A Questionnaire and cognition using the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test. Details of current seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug (AED) use among CWE were collected. RESULTS: At follow-up, cases had significantly more behavioral difficulties compared with controls (48% of 108 cases versus 14% of 103 controls (p<0.001)). Additionally, 69% of the cases and 16% of the controls had cognitive impairment (p<0.001). In CWE with decreased seizure frequency from baseline to follow-up, behavior had improved significantly. At follow-up, there was no significant difference in behavior between CWE with decreased seizure frequency and those with good seizure control throughout. SIGNIFICANCE: Behavioral difficulties and cognitive impairment are common among CWE in this population. Improved access to AED treatment and subsequent improved seizure control may reduce the frequency of behavioral difficulties seen in this population.

Original publication




Journal article


Epilepsy Behav

Publication Date





117 - 123


Behavior, Cognition, Epilepsy, Pediatric, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tanzania, Adolescent, Anticonvulsants, Case-Control Studies, Child, Child Behavior Disorders, Cognition Disorders, Comorbidity, Cross-Sectional Studies, Epilepsy, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Male, Odds Ratio, Prevalence, Rural Population, Seizures, Tanzania