Schizophrenia as a GSK-3 dysregulation disorder.
Lovestone S., Killick R., Di Forti M., Murray R.
Converging evidence suggests that the regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) might be important in schizophrenia. Atypical and typical antipsychotic drugs alter GSK-3 activity, as do drugs that induce psychosis. GSK-3 regulatory pathways are altered in schizophrenia, and many of the genes associated with schizophrenia directly or indirectly regulate GSK-3 activity. We propose a variant on the neurodevelopment and dopamine hypotheses of schizophrenia, whereby (i) an early dysfunction in GSK-3 regulation has neurodevelopmental consequences that predispose to disease and (ii) dysfunction in GSK-3 regulation in the adult brain alters dopamine signalling events, causing psychotic symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. If, as we suggest, GSK-3 regulation is crucial to schizophrenia, the Wnt and insulin signalling pathways become targets for therapy.