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Converging evidence suggests that the regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) might be important in schizophrenia. Atypical and typical antipsychotic drugs alter GSK-3 activity, as do drugs that induce psychosis. GSK-3 regulatory pathways are altered in schizophrenia, and many of the genes associated with schizophrenia directly or indirectly regulate GSK-3 activity. We propose a variant on the neurodevelopment and dopamine hypotheses of schizophrenia, whereby (i) an early dysfunction in GSK-3 regulation has neurodevelopmental consequences that predispose to disease and (ii) dysfunction in GSK-3 regulation in the adult brain alters dopamine signalling events, causing psychotic symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. If, as we suggest, GSK-3 regulation is crucial to schizophrenia, the Wnt and insulin signalling pathways become targets for therapy.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends Neurosci

Publication Date





142 - 149


Animals, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3, Humans, Models, Biological, Schizophrenia, Signal Transduction