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BACKGROUND: To date the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy modified for bipolar disorder has been inconsistent and sometimes disappointing. However studies exploring cognitive style in bipolar disorder have not identified the unique patterns of beliefs specific to bipolar disorder. The current study examines whether Mansell's hypomania-related dysfunctional belief scale specifically identifies bipolar disorder patients. METHOD: Forty remitted bipolar patients, twenty remitted unipolar patients and twenty healthy controls completed the Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Prediction Inventory (HAPPI) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). RESULTS: The remitted bipolar group scored higher than the unipolar and healthy control groups on the HAPPI scale overall score and on three subscales that measured self-catastrophic beliefs, beliefs related to negative responses from other people when in elevated mood and beliefs related the response style to activation and elevation. CONCLUSION: The study finds evidence of unique dysfunctional beliefs elevated only in remitted bipolar patients. Such findings could be used to inform the development of a specific cognitive behavioural therapy for bipolar disorder.

Original publication




Journal article


J Affect Disord

Publication Date





294 - 300


Adult, Bipolar Disorder, Cognition, Culture, Depression, Female, Humans, Male, Personality Inventory, Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Severity of Illness Index