Long term outcomes of acute and transient psychotic disorders: The missed opportunity of preventive interventions.
Rutigliano G., Merlino S., Minichino A., Patel R., Davies C., Oliver D., De Micheli A., McGuire P., Fusar-Poli P.
BACKGROUND: Acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD) are characterized by an acute onset and a remitting course, and overlap with subgroups of the clinical high-risk state for psychosis. The long-term course and outcomes of ATPD are not completely clear. METHODS: Electronic health record-based retrospective cohort study, including all patients who received a first index diagnosis of ATPD (F23, ICD-10) within the South London and Maudsley (SLaM) National Health Service Trust, between 1 st April 2006 and 15th June 2017. The primary outcome was risk of developing persistent psychotic disorders, defined as the development of any ICD-10 diagnoses of non-organic psychotic disorders. Cumulative risk of psychosis onset was estimated through Kaplan-Meier failure functions (non-competing risks) and Greenwood confidence intervals. RESULTS: A total of 3074 patients receiving a first index diagnosis of ATPD (F23, ICD-10) within SLaM were included. The mean follow-up was 1495 days. After 8-year, 1883 cases (61.26%) retained the index diagnosis of ATPD; the remaining developed psychosis. The cumulative incidence (Kaplan-Meier failure function) of risk of developing any ICD-10 non-organic psychotic disorder was 16.10% at 1-year (95%CI 14.83-17.47%), 28.41% at 2-year (95%CI 26.80-30.09%), 33.96% at 3-year (95% CI 32.25-35.75%), 36.85% at 4-year (95%CI 35.07-38.69%), 40.99% at 5-year (95% CI 39.12-42.92%), 42.58% at 6-year (95%CI 40.67-44.55%), 44.65% at 7-year (95% CI 42.66-46.69%), and 46.25% at 8-year (95% CI 44.17-48.37%). The cumulative risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder at 8-year was 36.14% (95% CI 34.09-38.27%). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with ATPD have a very high risk of developing persistent psychotic disorders and may benefit from early detection and preventive treatments to improve their outcomes.